Volume 2 | Issue 2 | May 2011 | Editorial Advisor: Dr. P. N. Varma | Editor: Dr. R. Valavan
* News from the world of homoeopathy
* Clinical verification
* Mother tincture info
* Product watch
* Research news
As per reports, India has the large number of practising homoeopaths and has organised infrastructure. The education system is separate from the conventional medicine. It comes under the Department of Ayush. Now Government of India is also focussing on these Ayush systems of medicine. Year by year it is reflected in the budget allocation. In a recent development, the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) of parliament has recommended to give a separate ministerial status to the Department of Ayush, detaching from the Ministry of Health.
Pharmacists with special training on homoeopathic processes will be good for the profession. They will dispense the medicines in a right way. Diploma in homoeopathy course has been conducted by institutions depending upon the need of the post. Now Government of Uttar Pradesh has decided to start a D. Pharm (Homoeopathy) course this year. It will cater the need of the profession. Both these developments are reported under “News from the world of homoeopathy”.
Under clinical verification, this time we have covered a well-known and widely used drug Plumbum metallicum. In a paper published in the International Journal of High Dilution Research, special emphasis was given to new symptoms as well as unusual or repeated dreams of the drug. 37 new symptoms were found, which are useful to update Homoeopathic Repertories. The researchers have concluded that the new HPT, besides widening the pathogenetic picture of Plumbum metallicum (skin and mucosae symptoms), also allowed us to give new and deeper meanings to some of the symptoms reported in the original trial, such as Anxiety, Activity, Depression, Slowness, Gastro-oesophageal problems, Colitis. All 37 new symptoms reported from this reproving, are given in this section for the readers of Schwabe News.
Brahmi is an old Indian drug. It has been used in Indian medicine for nervine and cardiac problems. Its late introduction into homoeopathy has given a valuable addition in the materia medica, in the name of Bacopa monnieri. Modern research has unearthed its activity on learning abilities, improving memory and other cognitive functions. All such reports are covered under Mother Tincture Info. With scientific understanding, it will be easier for physicians to remember this drug where the case needs.
Schwabe Germany is a name associated with eye drops in homoeopathy since a century. Efficacy of the product Cineraria Maritima Schwabe Eye Drops (CMS) helped expansion of the consumer base beyond homoeopathic market. There was a demand for less expensive all purpose eye drops for common problems from the trusted makers of original CMS Eye drops. People specifically wanted an alcohol free eye drops from Schwabe-Germany. The consumer demand has been met now. The company has produced a much lighter version as Senecio bicolour D2 or Cineraria Maritima D2 Eye Drops. Detailed indications of the product are covered under Product Watch.
Under ‘Research News’, we have covered couple of recent developments in the field of homoeopathic research. In a new research, a bioassay with arsenic-stressed duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) was developed to study potentially regulative effects of homoeopathic preparations. In another paper, the authors have studied and suggested to adopt new method in computer repertorisation called Fuzzy Expert System to aid in accurate remedy selection.
Enjoy reading and don’t miss to reply back with your feedback.
Dr. R. Valavan, BHMS, MD (Hom)
News from the world of homoeopathy
PAC recommended Department of Ayush should be converted into a full-fledged ministry
New Delhi, March 24 (IANS): The Public Accounts Committee has recommended converting the Department of Ayush into a separate ministry. The committee had presented its report on the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to the parliament. The implementation of the NRHM came under sharp attack from the committee, with the health ministry being asked to carry out a "complete re-appraisal and restructuring" of the project. In the report, it has also lamented that the government's expenditure on public health was merely 1.1 percent of the GDP. An "appalled" PAC also noted that the per capita expenditure in India on public health was still worse at $7, even less than that of neighbouring Sri Lanka at $30.
The PAC recommended that the Department of Ayush should be converted into a full-fledged ministry and for the promotion of indigenous systems of medicine such as ayurveda, unani, siddha, naturopathy, homoeopathy and yoga in rural areas. It also emphasized the formulation of a five-year special plan for the Ayush department to encourage cultivation of herbal medicines for domestic consumption and export.
The PAC, in its report, further said it was dismayed to note that health centres at various levels were being used as foodgrain godowns, community halls, local offices or cow sheds in many of the 18 states where the NRHM is being implemented. It said the health centres also lacked necessary infrastructure, doctors, medical supplies and trained health workers. "The committee apprehended that the goal of universal health care to all the citizens as envisaged in the mission may remain a pious platitude and a distant dream unless the budgetary outlays for the NRHM for both the terminal year of 11th plan and for the 12th plan period are scaled up significantly commensurate with the problem," it added.
UP to begin 2-yr diploma course in homoeopathy pharmacy
Lucknow: Now UP is all set to become the first state in the country to launch a two-year diploma in homoeopathy pharmacy (also called homoeopathy compounder course) that would produce homoeopathy pharmacists for operating government dispensaries in the state. Two government homoeopathy colleges in the state - one each in Lucknow and Allahabad with 100 seats for the course - would provide training to the aspiring candidates in the academic session starting this year. Uttarakhand has also shown interest in launching the course to bolster homoeopathy dispensaries in the state in the next year. All the 200 seats under the course have been filled through competition, and the course is all set to make its beginning this year, said the Registrar, Homoeopathy Medicine Board (UP), while talking to TOI on Monday. Saying that the eligibility criterion for application under the course has been fixed as intermediate pass-out in science stream, he also said that the move would bolster homoeopathy pharmacy besides reviving the government dispensaries.
Source: Times of India. Available at: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-04-18/varanasi/29447645_1_homoeopathy-doctors-dispensaries-colleges
It is a new clinical verification trial of Plumbum metallicum conducted in Italy. In a previous paper in the journal ‘Homeopathy’ the authors had reported the statistical analysis and other distribution data of a homoeopathic pathogenetic trial (HPT) of Plumbum metallicum 30CH carried out by the group, without giving pure materia medica elicited. In this paper special emphasis was given to new symptoms as well as unusual or repeated dreams, while in the previous paper special emphasis was given to repeated and crossed symptoms. Symptoms are reported in their chronological order of appearance in each volunteer. 37 new symptoms were found, useful to update Homoeopathic Repertories. The paper has also included a synthesis of the original HPT of Plumbum metallicum, carried out in 1828 in order to make available the full experimental materia medica currently existing. The researchers have concluded that the new HPT, besides widening the pathogenetic picture of Plumbum metallicum (skin and mucosae symptoms), also allowed us to give new and deeper meanings to some of the symptoms reported in the original trial, such as Anxiety, Activity, Depression, Slowness, Gastro-oesophageal problems, Colitis.
As stated above, there are mainly 37 new symptoms reported from this reproving, which are given below for the readers of Schwabe News.
1. Mind, Comprehension, easy
2. Mind, Delusions, tongue, double
3. Mind, Delusions, upright
4. Mind, Fear, heart, diseases of the heart– Mind, Anxiety, heart, about his
5. Mind, Industrious, morning, on waking
6. Mind, Mistakes, writing
7. Mind, Mistakes, writing, omitting, words
8. Mind, Mistakes, writing, thoughts, from fast
9. Mind, Mistakes, writing transposing letters
10. Vertigo, Rising, agg.
11. Head, Congestion, Meninges
12. Head, Congestion, Occiput
13. Vision, Colours, bright, spots (in the dark)
14. Mouth, Bleeding, Gums, cleaning them, when
15. Mouth, Crawling, Lips, around
16. Mouth, Roughness, tongue
17. Mouth, Thick, sensation as if, tongue was
18. Face, Chapped, lips
19. Face, Wrinkled, Forehead
20. Neck, Perspiration
21. Stomach, Appetite increased, night
22. Stomach, Appetite increased, accompanied by sleepiness
23. Rectum, flatus, diarrhoea, during
24. Chest, Itching, Mammae, Nipples
25. Chest, Congestion, Heart
26. Male, Ulcer, Glans
27. Female, Pain, Uterus, stitching
28. Skin, Itching, wandering
29. Skin, Itching, ameliorated by cold water
30. Skin, Prickling
31. Sleep, Semi-conscious
32. Dreams, Penis, cut off
33. Dreams, Teacher, of spiritual
34. Generalities, Air, draft, agg.
35. Generalities, Food, desire for ice-cream
36. Generalities, Heat, anxiety, during
37. Generalities, Trembling, externally, anxiety, with
Reference: Andrea Maria Signorini, Christa Pichler, Homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Plumbum metallicum: the complete 2000 trial with a synthesis of the original 1828 trial, Int J High Dilution Res 2011; 10(34): 15-36
Mother tincture info
It has been recently introduced in homoeopathy and is used empirically. It is an Indian herb with long tradition of use as nervine and cardiac tonic. It is an old Indian medicine known as ‘Brahmi’. It attracted the scientific attention as back as 1931 when Journal of Indian Medical Association reported that it has an alkaloid Brahmine, which has therapeutic similarity with strychnine, but is less toxic. Thereafter, the drug has been under continuous research. It is found throughout in India in wet damp marshy regions. It is a small plant and the whole plant is used in preparation of homoeopathic medicine. It is covered by the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India (Govt. of India). Homoeopathic literature covers impaired memory and indicates its usefulness as a tonic for absent mindedness1,2,3
Recent research reveals that it has significant influence on learning abilities, reduction of levels of anxiety, improved capacity of adjustments, improved mental function like better acquisition of knowledge, improved retention and delayed extinction. All these make it ideal of improving memory. About a dozen of phytochemicals have been isolated including different bacosides and certain sterols. They have positive effect on the central nervous system. In another paper published on the retention and extinction of newly learned skills on rats, the effect of Bacopa monerri for enhancing the learning abilities has been proved beyond doubt. Surprisingly the enhancement of learning skill persists even under tension like punishment and emotional changes. Very recently the alcoholic extract has been found to be having effects like sharpening of dull memory in the patients of anxiety neurosis. It is also used as tranquilizer, muscle relaxant and as anti-cancer drug (preventive and curative role like in animal experiments). 4,5,6,7,8,9
Based on the reports indicated it may be used alone or as complementary medicine for the following conditions:
* As nervine tonic to lower tension due to mental over-work.
* Improve learning potential.
* Improve memory.
* Lower tension and induce good sleep.
Recommended dose: 30 drops in water twice daily for extended period. Dose and duration are to be monitored by the physician with reference to the improvements taking place.
1. Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India.
2. Banerjea S. K., Fifty Homoeopathic Indian Drugs.
3. P. N. Varma, Indu Vaid, Encyclopaedia of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, Volume II, Updated edition 2007, B. Jain Publishers, New Delhi.
4. Andrew Chevallier, The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants, 1st ed. 1996
5. Dey, C.D. Bose,S. and Mitra,S 1976.Effect of some centrally active Phyto products on maze-learning of albino rat, Indian J Physio.l Allied Sci, 1976, 30, 88
6. Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi) extract on avoidance responses in rat. J Ethnopharmacol 1982;5:205–1
7. Roodenrys S, et al., Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2002 Aug;27(2):279-81
8. Asolkar L. V., Kakkar K. K., Chakre O. J., Second supplement to glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants with Active Principles, Part-I, Publications & Information Directorate (CSIR), New Delhi, 1992
9. Deepak Rai, Gitika Bhatia, Gautam Palit, et al., Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi), Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Volume 75, Issue 4, July 2003, Pages 823-830
Cineraria Maritima Eye Drops without alcohol (CMS D2)
Schwabe Germany is a name associated with eye drops in homoeopathy since a century. Efficacy of the product Cineraria Maritima Schwabe Eye Drops (CMS) helped expansion of the consumer base beyond homoeopathic market. It is now recommended by physicians for corneal opacities, cataract, senile cataract, for disturbed metabolism leading to above changes in the vitreous bodies and to delay the on-set of cataract in people above 45 years of age. It is a medicine to be used under medical advice. However, the company had feed-back of its use in common problems like strain, fatigue, dryness, irritation due to dust, smoke, glare of TV & computers. Even though the product was not meant for these minor problems it was used. Being herbal and safe people had no harmful effect. There was a demand for less expensive all purpose eye drops for common problems from the trusted makers of original CMS Eye drops. People specifically wanted an alcohol free eye drops from Schwabe-Germany. The consumer demand has been met now. The company has produced a much lighter version as Senecio bicolour D2 or Cineraria Maritima D2 Eye Drops. It is a generic eye drop and made as per German Pharmacopoeia. It is recommended for minor problems like strain, fatigue, dryness due to heat or over use, over glares, irritation due to dust, smoke, glare of TV / Computers, conjunctivitis and also for inflammation of eye lids.
CMS D2 is a sterile, isotonic (similar to the tension of tears or lachrymal fluids) with negligible alcohol. It is homoeopathic medicine at D2-level (1/100th) and is non-irritating and non-harming. It can be safely used by young & children. It is a product - free from side effect. Schwabe Cineraria Maritima (CMS-D2) is not a substitute of the original Cineraria Maritima Schwabe Eye Drops containing the succuss (juice) of the plant Senecio Cineraria. An advice to the patients to check the seals and logos when purchasing CMS D2 or CMS is worthwhile.
Usefulness and indication of CMS D2
* All purpose Eye Drops
* Mild injury to the eyes
* Irritation of eyes due to dust pollution etc.
* Eye strain due to prolonged use of computers
* Mild conjunctivitis and inflammation of eyelids
Dosage and direction for use: 2 drops 3 times daily into the eye or as per the physicians’ evaluation of the case.
Development of a Test System for Homoeopathic Preparations Using Impaired Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.)
In this new research, a bioassay with arsenic-stressed duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) was developed to study potentially regulative effects of homoeopathic preparations. Researchers had compared potentized substances (nine different potency levels between 17x and 33x) with two controls (unsuccussed and succussed water) regarding their influence on number- and area-related growth rate and colour of fronds (leaves). Screening included 11 potentised substances: Arsenicum album, gibberellic acid, nosode, arsenic (V), phosphorus, Conchae, Acidum picrinicum, Argentum nitricum, Crotalus horridus, Hepar sulfuris, and Mercurius vivus naturalis. Duckweed was stressed with arsenic (V) for 48 hours. Afterwards, plants grew in either potentised substances or water controls for 6 days. Growth rate and color of fronds were determined with a computerised image analysis system for different time intervals (days 0–2, 2–6, 0–6). A systematic negative control experiment with unsuccussed water was used to investigate the stability of the bioassay. All experiments were randomized and blinded. Results showed that Arsenicum album and nosode potencies increased frond number–related growth rate compared to controls (succussed water controls or pooled water controls [succussed and unsuccussed], p<0.05, t test). Regarding colour classification, no effects were observed. From this study researchers had concluded that the experimental setup with L. gibba stressed by arsenic (V) provides a valuable tool to investigate regulative effects of potentised substances. In order to verify the effects of Arsenicum album and nosode potencies, further independent replication experiments are necessary.
Reference: Tim Jäger, Claudia Scherr, Meinhard Simon, Peter Heusser, Stephan Baumgartner. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. April 2011, 17(4): 315-323
Remedy Selection based on Artificial Intelligent Methods
It is a new paper suggesting new method of computer repertorisation. Homoeopathy decision is a decision under uncertainty and an essential activity for accurate treatment. Computer expert systems have long history of application in medical diagnosis. In this paper the researchers have studied the application of Fuzzy Expert System (it is a logic system that uses collection of function and rules to reason a data) and decision tree for selection of suitable remedy in homoeopathy. A decision made by homoeopath is highly dependent on the quality of selected rubrics. The rubrics are collected during case taking and generally contains expressions that might be considered fuzzy, such as ‘never’, ‘sometimes’, ‘always’, and so on, making it difficult to model them with conventional computational methods. In this context, fuzzy set theory in expert systems is an interesting tool to deal with the representation of inaccurate medical entities. Hence, the researchers suggest that we can go from natural language (linguistic variables) to numerical variables when repertorising in the computer which are more convenient to handle in a computer. The proposed method reduces sensitivity of system to homoeopath mistakes and increase security of system.
Reference: S. S. Sadidpour, S. S. Ghidary, Remedy Selection based on Artificial Intelligent Methods, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887, Volume 19– No.9, April 2011
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